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DIRECT experience is the end of Yoga. How can this direct experience be gained? And the answer is: by Concentration or Will. Swami Vivekânanda on this point writes:

Those who really want to be Yogis must give up, once for all, this nibbling at things. Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life; dream of it; think of it; live on that idea. Let the brain, the body, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success, and this is the way great spiritual giants are produced. others are mere talking machines. ... To succeed, you must have tremendous perseverance, tremendous will. "I will drink the ocean," says the persevering soul. "At my will mountains will crumble up." Have that sort of energy, that sort of will, work hard, and you will reach the goal.40

"O Keshara," cries Arjuna, "enjoin in me this terrible action!" This will TO WILL.

To turn the mind inwards, as it were, ad stop it wandering outwardly, and then to concentrate all its powers upon itself, are the methods adopted by the Yogi in opening the closed Eye which sleeps in the hear to every one of us, and to create this will TO WILL. By doing so he ultimately comes face to face with something which is indestructible, on account of it being uncreatable, and which knows no dissatisfaction. {68}

Every child is aware that the mind possesses a power known as the reflective faculty. We hear ourselves talk; and we stand apart and see ourselves work and think. we stand aside from ourselves and anxiously or fearlessly watch and criticize our lives. There are two persons in us,— the thinker (or the worker) and the seer. The unwinding of the hoodwink from the eyes of the seer, for in most men the seer in, like a mummy, wrapped in the countless rags of thought, is what Yoga purposes to do: in other words to accomplish no less a task than the mastering of the forces of the Universe, the surrender of the gross vibrations of the external world to the finer vibrations of the internal, and then to become one with the subtle Vibrator —the Seer Himself.

We have mentioned the six chief systems of yoga, and now before entering upon what for us at present must be the two most important of them,— namely, Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga, we intend, as briefly as possible, to explain the remaining four, and also the necessary conditions under which all methods of Yoga should be practised.

GNANA YOGA. Union through Knowledge.

Gana Yoga is that Yoga which commences with a study of the impermanent wisdom of this world and ends with the knowledge of the permanent wisdom of the Âtman. Its first stage is Viveka, the discernment of the real from the unreal. Its second Vairâgya, indifference to the knowledge of the world, its sorrows and joys. Its third Mukti, release, and unity with the Âtman.

In the fourth discourse of the Bhagavad Gîta we find Gana Yoga praised as follows: {69}

Better than the sacrifice of any objects is the sacrifice of wisdom, O Paratapa. All actions in their entirety, O Pârtha, culminate in wisdom.

As the burning fire reduces fuel to ashes, O Arjuna, so doth the fire of wisdom reduce all actions to ashes.

Verily there is nothing so pure in this world as wisdom; he that is perfected in Yoga finds it in the Âtman in due season.41

KARMA YOGA. Union through Work.

Very closely allied to Gana Yoga is Karma Yoga, Yoga through work, which may seem only a means towards the former. But this is not so, for not only must the aspirant commune with the Âtman through the knowledge or wisdom he attains, but also through the work which aids him to attain it.

A good example of Karma Yoga is quoted from Chuang-Tzu by Flagg in his work on Yoga. It is as follows:

Prince Hui’s cook was cutting up a bullock. Every blow of his hand, every heave of his shoulders, every tread of his foot, every thrust of his knee, every whshh of rent flesh, every chhk of the chopper, was in perfect harmony, --- rhythmical like the dance of the mulberry grove, simultaneous like the chords of Ching Shou." "Well done," cried the Prince; "yours is skill indeed." "Sir," replied the cook, "I have always devoted myself to Tao (which here means the same as Yoga). "It is better than skill." When I first began to cut up bullocks I saw before me simply whole bullocks. After three years’ practice I saw no more whole animals. And now I work with my mind and not with my eye. when my senses bid me stop, but my mind urges me on, I fall back upon eternal 70 principles. I follow such openings or cavities as there may be, according to the natural constitution of the animal. A good cook changes his chopper once a year, because he cuts. An ordinary cook once a month—because he hacks. But I have had this chopper nineteen years, and although I have cut up many thousand bullocks, its edge is as if fresh from the whetstone.42

MANTRA YOGA. Union through Speech.

This type of Yoga consists in repeating a name or a sentence or verse over and over again until the speaker and the word spoken become one in perfect concentration. Usually speaking it is used as an adjunct to some other practice, under one or more of the other Yoga methods. Thus the devotee to the God Shiva will repeat his name over and over again until at length the great God opens his Eye and the world is destroyed.

Some of the most famous mantras are:

"Aum mani padme Hum."

"Aum Shivaya Vashi."

"Aum Tat Sat Aum."

"Namo Shivaya namaha Aum."

The pranava AUM43 plays an important part throughout the whole of Indian Yoga, and especially is it considered sacred by the Mantra-Yogi, who is continually using it. To pronounce it properly the "A" is from the throat, the "U" in the middle, and the "M" at the lips. This typifies the whole course of breath. {71}

It is the best support, the bow off which the soul as the arrow flies to Brahman, the arrow which is shot from the body as bow in order to pierce the darkness, the upper fuel with which the body as the lower fuel is kindled by the fire of the vision of God, the net with which the fish of Prâna is drawn out, and sacrificed in the fire of the Âtman, the ship on which a man voyages over the ether of the heart, the chariot which bears him to the world of Brahman.44

At the end of the "Shiva Sanhita" there are some twenty verses dealing with the Mantra. And as in so many other Hindu books, a considerable amount of mystery is woven around these sacred utterances. We read:

190. In the four-petalled Muladhara lotus is the seed of speech, brilliant as lightning.

191. In the heart is the seed of love, beautiful as the Bandhuk flower. In the space between the two eyebrows is the seed of Shakti, brilliant as tens of millions of moons. These three seeds should be kept secret.45

These three Mantras can only be learnt from a Guru, and are not given in the above book. By repeating them a various number of times certain results happen. Such as: after eighteen lacs, the body will rise from the ground and remain suspended in the air; after an hundred lacs, "the great yogi is absorbed in the Para-Brahman.46

BHAKTA YOGA. Union by love.

In Bhakta Yoga the aspirant usually devotes himself to some special deity, every action of his life being done in honour and glory of this deity, and, as Vivekânanda tells us, "he has not to suppress any single one of his emotions, he only strives to intensify them and direct them to god." Thus, if he devoted himself to Shiva, he must reflect in his life to his utmost the life of Shiva; if to Shakti the life of Shakti, unto the seer and the seen become one in he mystic union of attainment. {72}

Of Bhakta Yoga the "Nârada Sûtra" says:

58. Love (Bhakti) is easier than other methods.

59. Being self-evident it does not depend on other truths.

60. And from being of the nature of peace and supreme bliss.47

This exquisite little Sûtra commences:

1. will now explain Love.

2. Its nature is extreme devotion to some one.

3. Love is immortal.

4. Obtaining it man becomes perfect, becomes immortal, becomes satisfied.

5. And obtaining it he desires nothing, grieves not, hates not, does not delight, makes no effort.

6. Knowing it he become intoxicated, transfixed, and rejoices in the Self (Âtman).

This is further explained at the end of Swâtmârâm Swâmi’s "Hatha-Yoga."

Bhakti really means the constant perception of the form of the Lord by the Antahkarana. There are nine kinds of Bahktis enumerated. hearing his histories and relating them, remembering him, worshipping his feet, offering flowers to him, bowing to him (in soul), behaving as his servant, becoming his companion and offering up one’s Âtman to him. ... Thus, Bhakti, in its most transcendental aspect, is included in Sampradnyâta Samâdhi.48 {73}

The Gnana Yoga P., as the student, had already long prctised in his study of the Holy Qabalah; so also had he Karma Yoga by his acts of service whilst a Neophyte in the Order of the Golden Dawn; but now at the suggestion of D. A. he betook himself to practice of Hatha and Raja Yoga.

Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga are so intimately connected, that instead of forming two separate methods, they rather form the first half and second half of one and the same.

Before discussing either the Hatha or Raja Yogas, it will be necessary to explain the conditions under which Yoga should be performed. These conditions being the conventional ones, each individual should by practice discover those more particularly suited to himself.

i. The Guru.

Before commencing any Yoga practice, according to every Hindu book upon this subject, it is first necessary to find a Guru,49 to teacher, to whom the disciple (Chela) must entirely devote himself: as the "Shiva Sanhita" says:

11. Only the knowledge imparted by a Guru is powerful and useful; otherwise it becomes fruitless, weak and very painful.

12. He who attains knowledge by pleasing his Guru with every attention, readily obtains success therein.

13. There is not the least doubt that Guru is father, Guru is mother, and Guru is God even: and as such, he should be served by all, with their thought, word and deed.50

ii. Place. Solitude and Silence.

The place where Yoga is performed should be a beautiful and pleasant place, according to the Shiva Sanhita.51 In the {74} Kshurikâ Upanishad, 2. 21, it states that "a noiseless place" should be chosen; and in S’vetâs’vatara, 2. 10:

Let the place be pure, and free also from boulders and sand,

Free from fire, smoke, and pools of water,

Here where nothing distracts the mind or offends the eye,

In a hollow protected from the wind a man should compose himself.

The dwelling of a Yogi is described as follows:

The practiser of Hathayoga should live alone in a small Matha or monastery situated in a place free from rocks, water and fire; of the extent of a bow’s length, and in a fertile country ruled over by a virtuous king, where he will not be disturbed.

The Mata should have a very small door, and should be without any windows; it should be level and without any holes; it should be neither too high nor too long. It should be very clean, being daily smeared over with cow-dung, and should be free from all insects. Outside it should be a small corridor with a raised seat and a well, and the whole should be surrounded by a wall. ...52

iii. Time.

The hours in which Yoga should be performed vary with the instructions of the Guru, but usually they should be four times a day, at sunrise, mid-day, sunset and mid-night.

iv. Food.

According to the "Hatha-Yoga Pradipika": "Moderate {75} diet is defined to mean taking pleasant and sweet food, leaving one fourth of the stomach free, and offering up the act to Shiva."53

Things that have been once cooked and have since grown cold should be avoided, also foods containing an excess of salt and sourness. Wheat, rice, barley, butter, sugar, honey and beans may be eaten, and pure water and milk drunk. The Yogi should partake of one meal a day, usually a little after noon. "Yoga should not be practised immediately after a meal, nor when one is very hungry; before beginning the practice, some milk and butter should be taken."54

v. Physical considerations.

The aspirant to Yoga should study his body as well as his mind, and should cultivate regular habits. He should strictly adhere to the rules of health and sanitation. He should rise an hour before sunrise, and bathe himself twice daily, in the morning and thee evening, with cold water (if he can do so without harm to his health). His dress should be warm so that he is not distracted by the changes of weather.

vi. Moral considerations.

The yogi should practise kindness to all creatures, he should abandon enmity towards any person, "pride, duplicity, and crookedness" ... and the "companionship of women."55 Further, in Chapter 5 of the "Shiva Sanhaita" the hindrances {76} of Enjoyment, Religion and Knowledge are expounded at some considerable length. Above all the Yogi "should work like a master and not like a slave."56

HATHA YOGA. Union by Courage.

It matters not what attainment the aspirant seeks to gain, or what goal he has in view, the one thing above all others which is necessary is a healthy body, and a body which is under control. It is hopeless to attempt to obtain stability of mind in one whose body is ever leaping from land to water like a frog; with such, any sudden influx of illumination may bring with it not enlightenment but mania; there fore it is that all the great masters have set the task of courage before that of endeavour.57 He who dares to will, will will to know, and knowing will keep silence;58 for even to such as have entered the Supreme Order, there is not way found whereby they may break the stillness and communicate to those who have not ceased to hear.59 The guardian of the Temple is Adonai, he alone holds the key of the Portal, seek it of Him, for there is none other that can open for thee the door.

Now to dare much is to will a little, so it comes about that though Hatha Yoga is the physical Yoga which teaches the aspirant how to control his body, yet is it also Raja Yoga {77} which teach him how to control his mind. Little by little, as the body comes under control, does the mind assert its sway over the body; and little by little, as the mind asserts its sway, does it come gradually, little by little under the rule of the Âtman, until ultimately the Âtman, Augoeides, Higher Self or Adonai fills the Space which was once occupied solely by the body and mind of the aspirant. Therefore though the death of the body as it were is the resurrection of the Higher Self accomplished, and the pinnacles of that Temple, whose foundations are laid deep in the black earth, are lost among the starry Palaces of God.

In the "Hatha-Yoga Pradipika" we read that "there can be no Raja Yoga without Hatha Yoga, and vice versa, that to those who wander in the darkness of the conflicting Sects unable to obtain Raja Yoga, the most merciful Swâtmârâma Yogi offers the light of Hathavidya."60

In the practice of this mystic union which is brought about by the Hatha Yoga and the Raja Yoga exercises the conditions necessary are:

  1. Yama: Non-killing (Ahinsa); truthfulness (Satya); non-stealing (Asteya); continence (Brahmacharya); and non-receiving of any gift (Aparigraha).
  2. Niyama: Cleanliness (S’ancha); contentment (Santosha); mortification (Papasaya); study and self surrender (Swádhyáya); and the recognition of the Supreme (I’s’wara pranidháná).
  3. A’sana: Posture and the correct position of holding the body, and the performance of the Mudras. {78}
  4. "Prânâyâma:" Control of the Prâna, and the vital forces of the body.
  5. "Pratyâhâra:" Making the mind introspective, turning it back upon itself.
  6. "Dhâranâ:" Concentration, or the will to hold the mind to certain points.
  7. "Dhyâna:" Meditation, or the outpouring of the mind on the object held by the will.
  8. "Samâdhi:" Ecstasy, or Superconsciousness.

As regards the first two of the above stages we need not deal with them at any length. Strictly speaking, they come under the heading of Karma and Gnana Yoga, and as it were form the Evangelicism of Yoga—the "Thou shalt" and "Thou shalt not." They vary according to definition and sect.61 However, one point must be explained, and this is, that it must be remembered that most works on Yoga are written either by men like Patanjali, to whom continence, truthfulness, etc., are simple illusions of mind; or by charlatans, who imagine that, by displaying to the reader a mass of middle-class "virtues," their works will be given so exalted a flavour that they themselves will pass as great ascetics who have out-soared the bestial passions of life, whilst in fact they are running harems in Boulogne or making indecent proposals to flower-girls in South Audley Street. These latter ones generally trade under the exalted names of The Mahatmas; who, {79} coming straight from the Shâm Bazzaar, retail their wretched bă k băk to their sheep-headed followers as the eternal word of Brahman—"The shower from the Highest!" And, not infrequently, end in silent meditation within the illusive walls of Wormwood Scrubbs.

The East like the West, has for long lain under the spell of that potent but Middle-class Magician—St. Shamefaced sex; and the whole of its literature swings between the two extremes of Paederasty and Brahmach?rya. Even the great science of Yoga has not remained unpolluted by his breath, so that in many cases to avoid shipwreck upon Scylla the Yogi has lost his life in the eddying whirlpools of Charybdis.

The Yogis claim that the energies of the human body are stored up in the brain, and the highest of these energies they call "Ojas." they also claim that that part of the human energy which is expressed in sexual passion, when checked, easily becomes changed into Ojas; and so it is that they invariably insist in their disciples gathering up the sexual energy and converting it into Ojas. Thus we read:

It is only the chaste man and woman who can make the Ojas rise and become stored in the brain, and this is why chastity has always been considered the highest virtue. ... That is why in all the religious orders in the world that have produced spiritual giants, you will always find this intense chastity insisted upon. ...62 If people practise Raja-Yoga and at the same time lead an impure life, how can they expect to become Yogis?63 {80}

This argument would appear at first sight to be self-contradictory, and therefore fallacious, for, if to obtain Ojas is so important, how then can it be right to destroy a healthy passion which is the chief means of supplying it with the renewed energy necessary to maintain it? The Yogi’s answer is simple enough: Seeing that the extinction of the first would mean the ultimate death of the second the various Mudra exercises wee introduced so that this healthy passion might not only be preserved, but cultivated in the most rapid manner possible, without loss of vitality resulting from the practices adopted. Equilibrium is above all things necessary, and even in these early stages, the mind of the aspirant should be entirely free from the obsession of either ungratified or over-gratified appetites. Neither Lust nor Chastity should solely occupy him; for as Krishna says:

Verily Yoga is not for him who eateth too much, nor who abstaineth to excess, nor who is too much addicted to sleep, nor even to wakefulness, O Arjuna.

Yoga killeth out all pain for him who is regulated in eating and amusement, regulated in performing actions, regulated in sleeping and waking.64

This balancing of what is vulgarly known as Virtue and Vice,65 and which the Yogi Philosophy does not always appreciate, is illustrated still more forcibly in that illuminating work "Konx om Pax," in which Mr. Crowley writes:

As above so beneath! said Hermes the thrice greatest. The laws of the physical world are precisely paralleled by those of the moral and intellectual sphere. To the prostitute I prescribe a course of training by which she shall {81} comprehend the holiness of sex. Chastity forms part of that training, and I should hope to see her one day a happy wife and mother. To the prude equally I prescribe a course of training by which she shall comprehend the holiness of sex. Unchastity forms part of that training, and I should hope to see her one day a happy wife and mother.

To the bigot I commend a course of Thomas Henry Huxley; to the infidel a practical study of ceremonial magic. Then, when the bigot has knowledge of the infidel faith, each may follow without prejudice his natural inclination; for he will no longer plunge into his former excesses.

So also she who was a prostitute from native passion may indulge with safety in the pleasure of love; and she who was by nature cold may enjoy a virginity in no wise marred by her disciplinary course of unchastity. But the one will understand and love the other.66

Once and for all do not forget that nothing in this world is permanently good or evil; and, so long as it appears to be so, then remember that the fault is the seer’s and not in the thing seen, and that the seer is still in an unbalanced state. Never forget Blake’s words:

"Those who restrain desire do so because theirs is weak enough to be restrained; and the restrainer or reason usurps its place and governs the unwilling."67 Do not restrain your desires, but equilibrate them, for: "He who desires but acts not, breeds pestilence."68 Verily: "Arise, and drink your bliss, for everything that lives is holy."69

The six acts of purifying the body by Hatha-Yoga are Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Trataka, Nauli and Kapâlabhâti,70 each of {82} which is described at length by Swâtmârân Swami. But the two most important exercise which all must undergo, should success be desired, are those of A’sana and Prânâyâma. The first consists of physical exercises which will gain for him who practises them control over the muscles of the body, and the second over the breath.

The A’sanas, or Positions.

According to the "Pradipika" and the "Shiva Sanhita," there are 84 A’sanas; but Goraksha says there are as many A’sana as there are varieties of beings, and that Shiva has counted eighty-four lacs of them.71 The four most important are: Siddhâsana, Padmâsana, Ugrâsana and Svastikâsana, which are described in the Shiva Sanhita as follows:72

The Siddhâsana. By "pressing with care by the (left) heel the yoni,73 the other heel the Yogi should place on the lingam; he should fix his gaze upwards on the space between the two eyebrows ... and restrain his senses."

The Padmâsana. By crossing the legs "carefully place the feet on the opposite thighs (the left on the right thing and vice versâ," cross both hands and place them similarly on the thighs; fix the sight on the tip of the nose."

The Ugrâsana. "Stretch out both the legs and keep them apart; firmly take hold of the head by the hands, and place it on the knees."

The Svastikâsana. "Place the soles of the feet completely under the thighs, keep the body straight and at ease."

For the beginner that posture which continues for the {83} greatest length of time comfortable is the correct one to adopt; but the head, neck and chest should always be held erect, the aspirant should in fact adopt what the drill- book calls "the first position of a soldier," and never allow the body in any way to collapse. The "Bhagavad-Gâta" upon this point says:

In a pure place, established in a fixed seat of his own, neither very much raised nor very low ... in a secret place by himself. ... There ... he should practise Yoga for the purification of the self. Holding the body, head and neck erect, immovably steady, looking fixedly at the point of the nose and unwandering gaze.

When these posture have been in some way mastered, the aspirant must combine with them the exercises of Prânâyâma, which will by degrees purify the Nâdi or nerve-centres.

These Nâdis, which are usually set down as numbering 72,000,74 ramify from the heart outwards in the pericardium; the three chief are the Ida, Pingala and Sushumnâ,75 the last of which is called "the most highly beloved of the Yogis."

Besides practising Prânâyâma he should also perform one {84} or more of the Mudras, as laid down in the "Hatha Yoga Pradipika" and the "Shiva Sanhita," so that he may arouse the sleeping Kundalini, the great goddess, as she is called, who sleeps coiled up at the mouth of the Sushumnâ. But before we deal with either of these exercises, it will be necessary to explain the Mystical Constitution of the human organism and the six Chakkras which constitute the six stages of the Hindu Tau of Life.

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Index | The Hermit | The Agnostic Position | The Vedanta | Attainment By Yoga | The Yogas | The Constitution of the Human Organism | The Chakkras | The Doctrines of Buddhism | The Noble Eightfold Path | The Writings of Truth

Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV | Part V | Part VI | Part VII | Part VIII | Part IX

40 Vivekânanda, "Raja Yoga," Udbodhan edition, pp. 51, 52. "Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight and the rough ways shall be made smooth. ... Prepare ye the way of Adonai." --- Luke, iii, 5, 4.

41 "The Bhagavad-Gâta," iv, 33, 37, 38. Compare with the above "The Wisdom of Solomon," "e.g.": "For wisdom, which is the worker of all things, taught me; for in her is an understanding spirit, holy, one only, manifold, subtle, lively, clear, undefiled, plain, not subject to hurt, loving the thing that is good, quick, which cannot be letted, ready to do good. ... for wisdom is more moving than any motion; she passeth and goeth through all things by reason of her pureness. For she is the breath of the power of God." (Chap. VII, 22, 24, 25.)

42 "Yoga or Transformation," p. 196. Control, or Restraint, is the Key to Karma Yoga; weakness is its damnation. Of the Karma Yogi Vivekânanda writes: "He goes through the streets of a big city with all their traffic, and his mind is as calm as if he were in a cave, where not a sound could reach him; and he is intensely working all the time." "Karma Yoga," p. 17.

43 See Vivekânanda’s "Bhakti-Yoga," pp. 62-68.

44 Deussen. "The Upanishads," p. 390.

45 "Shiva Sanhita," chap. v. The seed in each case is the Mantra.

46 The Absolute.

47 Nârada Sûtra. Translated by T. Sturdy. Also see the works of Bhagavan Ramanuja, Bhagavan Vyasa, Prahlada, and more particularly Vivekânanda’s "Bhakti Yoga." Bhakta Yoga is divided into two main divisions. (1) The preparatory, known as "Gauni"; (2) The devotional, known as "Par ." Thus it very closely resembles, even in detail, the Operation of Abramelin, in which the aspirant, having thoroughly prepared himself, devotes himself to the invocation of his Holy Guardian Angel.

48 In Bhakta Yoga the disciple usually devotes himself to his Guru, to whom he offers his devotion. The Guru being treated as the God himself with which the Chela wishes to unite. Eventually "He alone sees no distinctions! The mighty ocean of love has entered unto him, and he sees not men, animals and plants or the sun, moon and the stars, but beholds his Beloved everywhere and in everything. Vivekânanda, "Bhakti Yoga," Udbodham edition, p. 111. The Sufis were Bhakti Yogis, so was Christ. Buddha was a Gnani Yogi.

49 A Guru is as necessary in Yoga as a Music master is in Music.

50 "Shiva Sanhita," chap. iii.

51 Ibid., chap. v, 184, 185. The aspirant should firstly, join the assembly of good men but talk little; secondly, should eat little; thirdly, should renounce the company of men, the company of women, all company. He should practise in secrecy in a retired palace. "For the sake of appearances he should remain in society, but should not have his heart in it. he should not renounce the duties of his profession, caste or rank, but let him perform these merely as an instrument without any thought of the event. By thus doing there is no sin." This is sound Rosicrucian doctrine, by the way.

52 "Hatha-Yoga Pradipika," pp. 5, 6. Note the similarity of these conditions to those laid down in "The Book of the Sacred Magic." Also see "Gheranda Sanhita," p. 33.

53 "Hatha-Yoga Pradipika," p. 22. On the question of food Vivekânanda in his "Bhakti Yoga," p. 90, says: "The cow does not eat meat, nor does the sheep. Are they great Yogins? ... Any fool may abstain from eating meat; surely that alone give him no more distinction than to herbivorous animals." Also see "Gheranda Sanhita," pp. 34-36.

54 "Shiva Sanhita," iii, 37.

55 Ibid., iii, 33.

56 Vivekânanda, "Karma-Yoga," p. 62.

57 As in the case of Jesus, the aspirant, for the joy that is set before him, must "dare" to endure the cross, despising the shame; if he would be "set down at the right hand of the throne of God." Hebrews, xii, 2.

58 "If there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself, and to God" (1 Corinthians, xiv, 28) has more than one meaning.

59 "And when he had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half and hour" (Rev. viii, 1).

60 "Hatha-Yoga Pradipika," p. 2.

61 In all the Mysteries the partakers of them were always such as had not committed crimes. It will be remembered that Nero did not dare to present himself at the Eleusinian (Sueton. "vit. Nero," e. 3A). And Porphyry informs us that "in the Mysteries honour to parents was enjoined, and not to injure animals" ("de Abstinentia," iv, 22).

62 Certainly not in the case of the Mahometan Religion and its Sufi Adepts, who drank the vintage of Bacchus as well as the wine of Iacchus. The question of Chastity is again one of those which rest on temperament and not on dogma. It is curious that the astute Vivekânanda should have fallen into this man-trap.

63 Swami Vivekânanda, "Raja Yoga," p. 45.

64 The Bhagavad-Gâta, vi, 16, 17.

65 Or more correctly as the Buddhist puts its—skilfulness and unskilfulness.

66 "Konx om Pax," by A. Crowley, pp. 62, 63.

67 The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.

68 Ibid.

69 Visions of the Daughters of Albion.

70 "Hatha Yoga Pradipika," p. 30. Dhauti is of four kinds: Antardhauti (internal washing); Dantdhauti (cleaning the teeth); Hriddhauti (cleaning the heart); Mulashodhana (cleaning the anus). Basti is of two kinds, Jala Basti (water Basti) and Sukshma Basti (dry Basti) and consists chiefly in dilating and contracting the sphincter muscle of the anus. Neti consists of inserting a thread into the nostrils and pulling it out through the mouth, Trataka in steadying the eyes, Nauli in moving the intestines, and Kapâlabhâti, which is of three kinds, Vyât-krama, Vâma-krama, and Sit-krama, of drawing in wind or water through the nostrils and expelling it by the mouth, and "vice versâ". Also see "Gheranda Sanhita," pp. 2-10. This little book should be read in conjunction with the "Hatha Yoga Pradipika."

71 The "Gheranda Sanhita" gives thirty-two postures.

72 The "Shiva Sanhita," pp. 25, 26.

73 The imaginary "triangle of flesh" near the perinaeum.

74 Besides the 72,000 nerves or veins there are often 101 others mentioned. These 101 chief veins each have 100 branch veins which again each have 72,000 tributary veins. The total (101 + 101 x 100 x 100 x 72,000) equals 727,210,201. The 101st is the Sushumnâ. Yoga cuts through all these, except the 101st, stripping away all consciousness until the Yogi "is merged in the supreme, indescribable, ineffable Brahman." Also see "Gheranda Sanhita," p. 37. The Nâadis are known to be purified by the following signs: (1) A clear skin. (2) A beautiful voice. (3) A calm appearance of the face. (4) Bright eyes. (5) Hearing constantly the Nâda.

75 The Sushumnâ may in more than one way be compared to Prometheus, or the hollow reed, who as the mediator between heaven and earth transmitted the mystic fire from the moon. Again the Mahalingam or ο̕φαλλὸσ. For further see "The Canon," p. 119.