Zeno of Citium

Greece @ 334 – 262 BCE

Ancients; Originated Stoicism ; refined the philosophy of the Cynics; destructive emotions result from errors in judgment; Restrain emotion, highlight Intellect; Judge people by their actions, not words; Virtue is harmony with Nature; deterministic perspective; self-discipline; The Universe = God ;


Antisthenes , originator of Cynicism; Crates of Thebes, Cynic; Diodorus Cronus; Aristotle; Hippocrates; Thales of Miletus; Heraclitus; Socrates; Plutarch; Cato; Stilpo; Diodorus Cronus; Philo; Xenocrates; Polemo;


Seneca ; Epictetus; Emperor Marcus Aurelius; Rene Descartes; Baruch Spinoza ; Oscar Ichazo; Diogenes Laërtius; Chrysippus; Antipater; Panaetius ; Posidonius, who 1st lists the 4 Cardinal Virtues as prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance; Musonius Rufus; A. A. Long; King Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia; Persaeus; Aristo of Chios; Sphaerus; Cleanthes; David Hume; St. Paul, the Apostle when he was a Greek educated Jew, before conversion; Philodemus of Gadara ;


Democritus; Diogenes of Sinope ;


Epicurus, originator of Epicureanism ; Emperor Justinian I; Aenesidemus ; Pyrrho of Elis, both of the Skeptics;


the Stoa Poikile (AKA “the painted porch”) school;


Republic; Ethics; On Duty ; fragments


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